Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of different temperature. Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body.
Thus, thermal insulation fabric for fire fighter or PPE must be heat and fire resistant, but also be highly adaptable to a wide variety of settings and circumstances. In a wide range of textile materials has been used as thermal insulators in many industrial applications. The thermal insulating properties of textile fabrics depend on their thermal conductivity, density, thickness and thermal emission characteristics.
Typical protective firefighter clothing is made of three different layers. The outer layer of the structure is inherently permanent flame-resistant material, does not require any additional process or additives. The second layer - moisture barrier is the middle layer and prevents high temperature water vapor, chemicals, and other pathogens from entering the clothing. The third layer of the clothing is a thermal liner that provides thermal protection for the wearer with its nonwoven or porous padding structure.
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Firefighter turnout gear (TOG) including thermal barrier and moisture barrier fabrics. Thermal barrier fabric is FR blending woven fabric and FR non-woven fabric which are quilted by 100% Nomex thread. Moisture barrier fabric includes FR non-woven blending fabric(K-3456) and laminated with FR breathable PTFE membrane (K-3447).
In addition to this, comfort properties are also crucial for improving the wearer’s performance and the reduction of heat stress related issues. Weight and materials combinations are important parameters in order to optimize functional properties as well as comfort properties.
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