Fabrics are designed and constructed to meet the requirements of different applications; however, all fabrics fall into one of two categories: woven vs non-woven.
Woven fabrics are the most traditional fabrics constructed by weaving yarns together typically at 90° angles. The vertical fibers are called “warp” threads, while “weft” threads weave through the warp threads along the horizontal width of the textile. Woven fabrics can be created from a wide variety of materials and are most commonly used in clothing and various industrial applications. Most clothing fabrics and items, including shirts, pants, and even denim are all woven.
Advantages of Woven Fiber
Woven materials are usually the most cost-effective textile for a variety of applications. These fabrics can be finished or treated with substances to give them attributes like waterproofing and breathability. They are also readily available and easy to source from a robust and wide-ranging supply chain. Woven fiber comes in a variety of weave types, and custom constructions can be easily engineered to suit various needs. Additionally, woven fabrics provide a wide range of high-performing physical characteristics.
Some industrial applications for woven fabrics include, but are not limited to:
- Composite material components (for example, aircraft internal / external reinforcement)
- Filtration membranes and materials for chemical processing applications
- Automotive applications (for example, insulation or sound absorption)
- PPE and uniforms for military personnel, divers, firefighters, law enforcement, etc.
- Strong safety harnesses and seat belts for recreational, automotive, and aerospace applications
- Upholstery materials for furniture
- Medical fabrics
- Consumer fabrics
Non-woven fabrics are textiles that have been created through a process of bonding fibers together, either by some kind of chemical adhesion, mechanical or heat treatment, or a combination of those. There is no weaving or manual construction involved. Although woven fabrics are usually stronger because of how they are constructed, non-woven fabric can be strengthened by bonding multiple layers or adding support backing.
Non-woven fabrics are long fibers that are bonded together by heat, chemical, or mechanical treatment. There is no weaving or manual construction involved. Non-woven fabrics have many different properties; including liquid resistance, being stretchable, better thermal insulation than woven fabrics, and can be resistant to bacteria. These fabrics can also be made stronger by adding a supportive backing. They also tend to be the more affordable choice, as these fabrics are less expensive to produce and quicker to manufacture. In most cases, woven fabrics are more durable and strong than non-woven. This is because woven fabrics are reinforced by thread crossing thread, which creates a strong barrier.
Advantages of Non-Woven Fiber
Non-woven fabrics are often more cost-effective and can be manufactured more quickly. The many advantages of non-woven fibers include resiliency, enhanced absorbency, improved washability, and bacterial protection. Non-woven fabrics can also be tailored to enhance certain features such as liquid repellency, impact resistance, flame retardancy, electrical insulation, and thermal insulation. Additionally, these soft and flexible fabrics offer improved filtering and sterility.
The versatility of non-woven fabrics makes them suitable for a wide array of industrial applications, including:
- Aerospace applications (such as exterior tiles on spacecraft)
- Acoustic insulation
- Thermal insulation
- Fire retardant mattresses and other fire-retardant materials
- High-temperature industrial filters
- Puncture and cut-resistant materials
- Synthetic and composite materials for industrial use
- Welding protection
- Wall coverings
- Trunk liners and vehicle seats
Woven vs Non-Woven
|Feature||Woven Fabrics||Non-Woven Fabrics|
|Manufacturing Method||Vertical and horizontal fiber interweaving||Fibers bonded through chemical, mechanical, or heat treatment|
|Strength||Typically higher strength||Typically lower strength|
|Cost-Effectiveness||Usually lower cost||Generally more cost-effective|
|Production Speed||Relatively slower production||Relatively faster production|
|Characteristics||Abrasion-resistant, high strength, durable||Absorbency, insulation, bacterial resistance|
|Customization||Different weave patterns can be tailored to needs||Customizable for various properties|
|Primary Applications||Clothing, industrial applications||Medical, consumer goods, industrial applications|
In summary, the choice between woven vs non-woven textiles hinges on specific needs and characteristics. Woven fabrics offer strength and durability, suited for traditional applications like clothing and industrial components. Non-woven fabrics, on the other hand, provide cost-effectiveness, absorbency, insulation, and more, making them versatile for industries such as aerospace, healthcare, and automotive. Both have their roles in meeting diverse textile demands.